Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012; 16 (3 Suppl): 133-143

Immunological and physiological parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to Azadirachta indica plant

F.A. Bakry, K. El-Hommossany, H.S. Mossalem

Environmental Research and Medical Malacology Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza (Egypt

BACKGROUND: Plant molluscicides could be appropriate for snail control measures against schistosomiasis in endemic areas.

OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the immunological and physiological responses of Biomphalaria (B.) alexandrina snails to the effect of methanol extract of Azadirachta (A.) indica plant.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Haemolymph samples were collected from snails treated with LC25 from methanol extract for 1 month and untreated snails. The collected haemolymph samples from treated and untreated snails with tested plant were used for flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle.

RESULTS: The obtained results indicated that hemolymph samples from B. alexandrina snails contained two morphologically distinct types of hemocytes, designated as Hyalinocyte and Granulocyte cells. In addition, the number of both snail’s hyalinocytes and granulocytes and the mortality rate was significantly increased with treatment with A. indica extract. Phagocytosis in group treated with tested plant was highly significant increased than control one indicating a highly increase response of snail against the treatment. The lipid peroxide and glucose levels in hemolymph of treated snails were elevated while the protein and glycogen contents showed a decrease in soft tissues when compared with the control group. In addition, the activity level of some enzymes representing glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI); glycogenolytic enzymes as glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); gluconeogenic enzymes as fructose-1-6 diphosphatase (F-D-P ase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was also significantly reduced in response to treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the application of methanol extracts of A. indica plant may be helpful in snail control as it interferes with the snails’immunology and physiology.

Corresponding Author: Fayez Ahmed Bakry MD; e-mail:

To cite this article

F.A. Bakry, K. El-Hommossany, H.S. Mossalem
Immunological and physiological parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to Azadirachta indica plant

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Year: 2012
Vol. 16 - N. 3 Suppl
Pages: 133-143