Presentation of Manuscripts
When submitting a paper, authors should observe the following guidelines:
- Do not attempt to make your output approximate or match the typeset page.
- Be consistent in style (i.e., units, abbreviations).
- End paragraphs in a uniform manner, and in a different manner from line endings within paragraphs. A frequently used paragraph ending is simply two carriage returns.
- Use double spacing in your document. Do not add extra line spacing (except as a normal paragraph ending indication) above or below titles, subheads, or between paragraphs.
- Avoid using multiple spaces (horizontal) in your electronic manuscript. End sentences with only one space. Never use multiple spaces for horizontal positioning of text.
- Table and figure captions should be prepared in separate files. The Authors have to indicate this material within the text.
- Additional tables or figures and/or extra methodological detail can be included in a separate Supplementary Appendix.
The following documents should appear in all manuscript types and their submission is mandatory for publication:
- TITLE PAGE: The title page must contain the Authors’ names, appointments and affiliations, along with the full contact details of the Corresponding Authors, including their current e-mail addresses. A full and short-running title should be given, plus a small number of keywords (5-10) for indexing purposes. We recommend that the keywords are specific to the article.
- COVER LETTER: Authors who submit manuscripts to Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci must provide a supporting Cover Letter which briefly details the article relevance to the journal’s audience and how the article advances understanding of the field. The Cover Letter must include contact information [affiliation, postal address, e-mail address, telephone number] for all authors. Authors should indicate a Corresponding Author to whom correspondence will be sent if the manuscript is accepted for publication. In the Letter, authors must confirm that the manuscript has been submitted solely to this journal and is not published, in press, or submitted elsewhere (including preprint servers). Authors must confirm that all the research meets the ethical guidelines, including adherence to the legal requirements of the study country. Authors must confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors and that there are no other persons who satisfied the criteria for authorship. The Cover Letter must be signed by the Corresponding Author on behalf of all other authors.
- ABSTRACT*: The Abstract should count a total of about 300 words maximum. It should be organized into sections using the following headings: BACKGROUND or OBJECTIVE; PATIENTS/MATERIALS/SUBJECTS AND METHODS or CASE REPORT/PRESENTATION (in case reports); RESULTS; CONCLUSIONS.
- REFERENCES: References should be numbered in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text and should be located in superscript and not in parenthesis. References have to follow a numerical order and should be identified in the text, tables, and legends through Arabic numbers in superscript. References must be verified by the Authors against the original documents.
*The Abstract is not mandatory for Letters to the Editor and Editorials.
Document file formats for submission
Authors should submit their article as a unique word document (.doc, .docx), including all the aforementioned sections (except for figure files). Article pages should be numbered consecutively by inserting the page number (in Arabic numerals) at the bottom of each page. Authors must add continuous line numbering throughout the document in order to facilitate the review process and subsequent author revisions.
How to structure your article
Title page, Abstract and Keywords
- Title: Full title should be concise and informative. Abbreviations and formulae should not be included in the title. The title should be no more than 180 characters (including spaces).
- Running head: A running head (short title) should be supplied and should not exceed 50 characters (including spaces).
- Authors’ names and affiliations: The title page must include the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author, along with authors’ affiliations below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lowercase superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the corresponding affiliation. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and the email address of each author. Please note that European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences takes a neutral position with respect to territorial claims in institutional affiliations.
- Corresponding Author: Authors must indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing, publication and post-publication. Ensure that the Corresponding Author title(s) and credentials, degree(s) (e.g., MD, Ph.D), affiliation(s) and postal and email addresses are given and that contact details are kept up to date by the Corresponding Author.
- Abstract: Each manuscript must begin with an unstructured abstract that summarizes the results obtained and the conclusions drawn. References must not be included in the abstract. Moreover, the use of abbreviations in the abstract should be avoided.
- Keywords: Three to ten keywords should be supplied in alphabetical order immediately after the abstract. Authors should use American spelling and avoid general and plural terms as well as multiple concepts (e.g., avoid “and”, “of”). Only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be included in the keyword list. We recommend that the keywords are specific to the article. Keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Graphical abstract: Even though a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the article. The graphical abstract aims to summarize the article contents in a pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a broad readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system (Publishing Manager). Authors should provide an image with a minimum of 531×1328 pixels (h×w). The image should be readable at a size of 5×13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file formats include: .TIFF, .PMG, .JPG.
The paper should then proceed conventionally with the following sections:
- Introduction (or Background)
- Materials and Methods (or Patients and Methods or Subjects and Methods)
The main text of the articles should be organized into the abovementioned sections: Introduction (or Background), Materials and Methods (or Patients/Subjects and Methods), Results, Discussion, Conclusions, References.
This structure does not apply to Editorials, Letters to the Editors, Brief Commentaries. For more information see Articles types
For articles that are not based on original data (i.e., narrative reviews), the sections Materials and Methods (or Patients/Subjects and Methods) and Results can be replaced with other subheadings at the authors’ discretion.
Commentaries, Editorials and Letters to the Editor do not require a structured organization of the main text. However, the use of the Introduction section and additional subheadings is encouraged for Commentaries and for Editorials.
Each section of the text should respect the following guidelines:
- Introduction: The authors in the introduction session should place the study in a broad context and highlight why it is important in comparison with published articles. They should define the aim of the work and clearly explain the specific hypothesis being tested. It is fundamental to specify if the observation could be based on previous research by others or your own pilot study and to include a summary of findings from previous, relevant studies.
- Materials/Patients/Subjects and Methods: New experimental procedures and protocols should be described in detail, while well-established methods can be briefly described but appropriately cited. The materials and analysis should provide robust information to allow replication of the study. Study design should be described in detail, and descriptions of reagents and equipment (if present) should facilitate replication. Statistical methods and software program(s) must be described with enough detail in a specific paragraph (Statistical Analysis) in order to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results.
- Statistical methods
Statistical methods must be clearly described for original articles based on animal or human studies. The statistical methods and statistical software program(s) used should be described. Two-tailed significance tests should be used unless explicitly stated. Controls should be described as completely as experimental subjects. Measures of location should be accompanied by measures of variability (e.g., mean and confidence intervals) as well as conventional probability values. Clinical trial reports should include the description of the statistical power of the study.
- Cell lines
The contamination or misidentification of cell lines negatively impacts the validity of research observations. Therefore, authors are required to describe the source of the cell line, as well as the method used for authentication, in the Materials and Methods section.
- Statistical methods
In the case of DNA/RNA quantification methods, they must be well described in terms of calculation and references adopted to enable researchers’ access to the raw data. The oligonucleotides sequence, as well as the PCR protocols, should be described in detail in the manuscript. DNA, RNA, and protein sequences used in the manuscript should be provided with an accession number. New sequence information must be deposited to the appropriate database (GenBank, EMBL, or DDBJ.) prior to submission of the manuscript. Instruments used must be accompanied by their model’s name, city, state and country of manufacture in round brackets. The clone’s name and source of monoclonal antibodies should be reported.
- Results: This section must contain all results obtained during (and, if applicable, after) the study, mentioning all study outcomes and findings, basing on the supporting data.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences does not accept the publication of text referring to “data not shown” or “unpublished data”.
- Discussion: In the discussion section, author do not simply restate the results, but they have to widely explain them, interpreting the results and anticipating the conclusions. In these sections, references to other articles in literature are usually suggested, in order to better explain the framework of the study. A final paragraph with limitations of the study (if any) is strongly suggested, in order to strengthen the validity of your work.
- Conclusions: In this final section, all general outcomes of your study must be mentioned, as well as the need of further studies if such conclusions remain limited.
Any suggestion or advice for other authors should be added, in order to make your work a valuable contribution to scientific literature.
References must be supplied at the end of each manuscript (immediately after the section “Conflict of interest”) and numerically listed in the reference list in the order in which they were first used in the text. References must be numbered in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text, and should be identified in the text, tables and legends by Arabic numerals in superscript before punctuation. For example: “Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a type of mammalian adipose tissue, located in several specific depots in the body1.”.
When reporting the reference numbers in the text, authors must follow these rules: “1-2” must be written as “1,2”. Authors must insert “-” only in the presence of more than two consecutive numbers. For example: “1,2,3,4,5,6” must be written as “1-6”.
Reference numbers must follow a sequential order within the text and must be inserted before the punctuation (YES12. NO.12).
For each reference, all authors have to be listed (do not use et al.), together with year without month of publication. Delete the number of the single issue after the volume number.
Name of the journal: write the international acronyms without any punctuation. Insert a space after semicolon and colon (INCORRECT: 2014;2014:907915; CORRECT: 2014; 2014: 907915). Moreover, initial and final pages must be entirely reported (INCORRECT: 135-46; CORRECT: 135-146).
In the references, authors must insert a space after the semicolon and colon.
- CORRECT: Garcia-Contreras M, Brooks RW, Boccuzzi L, Robbins PD, Ricordi C. Exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutic tools for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017; 21: 2940-2956.
- INCORRECT: Garcia-Contreras M, Brooks RW, Boccuzzi L, Robbins PD, Ricordi C. Exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutic tools for type 1 diabetes mellitus. EurRevMedPharmacolSci 2017;21:2940-2956.
For each reference, authors must replace “and” with “,” (comma) before the last author’s name. Moreover, all authors’ names must be written with the same text size (only the first letter of the author name must be written in capital letter). For example:
(INCORRECT) Example 1: DA. Baidal, C. Ricordi, M. Garcia-Contreras, A. Sonnino, A. Fabbri. Combination high-dose omega-3 fatty acids and high-dose cholecalciferol in new onset type 1 diabetes: A potential role in preservation of beta-cell mass. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Jul;20(15):3313-8.
(CORRECT) Example 1: Baidal DA, Ricordi C, Garcia-Contreras M, Sonnino A, Fabbri A. Combination high-dose omega-3 fatty acids and high-dose cholecalciferol in new onset type 1 diabetes: a potential role in preservation of beta-cell mass. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2016; 20: 3313-3318. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27467009/
(INCORRECT) Example 2: Gomez-Meade C.A., Lopez-Mitnik G. V., Messiah S. E., Garcia-Contreras M., Sanchez J. Vitamin D status in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in a sun-rich environment. CellR4 2016; 4 (5): e2140
(CORRECT) Example 2: Gomez-Meade CA, Lopez-Mitnik GV, Messiah SE, Garcia-Contreras M, Sanchez J. Vitamin D status in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in a sun-rich environment. CellR4 2016; 4: e2140. https://www.cellr4.org/article/2140
The full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any additional information, if known (e.g., author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references should be included in the reference list.
Authors must carefully check the appropriateness of the references before submitting the manuscript.
Figures must be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name (e.g., Figure 1.jpg). Figures must not be embedded in the main text. Figures must be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals (e.g., Figure 1). European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences accepts high-resolution figures in the following formats:
|Manuscript and Tables||Graphic Files (Figures)||Video Files|
|• Word||• GIF
• TIF (or TIFF)
• JPG (or JPEG)
The figure resolution for various types of original figures, at their final size, should be as follows: Line art – Minimum 600 dpi, measuring preferably 13×18 cm and no more than 20×25 cm in size. Halftone (i.e., both B/W and color photographs) – Minimum 300 dpi, measuring preferably 13×18 cm and no more than 20×25 cm in size. Line and tone (line art and halftone combined) – Minimum 600 dpi, measuring preferably 13×18 cm and no more than 20×25 cm in size.
For line figures: lines should be solid, the text should be presented in a standard font and not blurred, and the overall illustration/image should be sharp and clear. Authors should avoid using tints if possible; if they are essential to the understanding of the figure, try to make them coarse.
As a reminder, if the electronic files are viewed at 400% on the computer screen and look blurred or pixelated then they are not of sufficient quality for printing.
There are no color figure charges for this journal.
Figure legends must be included in the main text of the manuscript (immediately after the reference list), but not in the figure file. Figure legends should also include a list of abbreviations, if needed.
Tables and table legends should be contained in a separate Word file. Tables should be self-contained and understandable without reference to the text, and they should not duplicate the information which is already included in the text. Tables must be numbered consecutively in the text in Roman numerals (e.g., Table I).
Tables must be supplied in their original, editable format (preferably Microsoft Word). Tables uploeaded as images or illustrations (e.g., tables in .jpg, .tif or other image formats) are not accepted. All abbreviations included in the tables must be defined in the footnotes. Tables and table footnotes can include superscript references at the author’s discretion.
Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used and *, **, *** should be reserved for p-values. Statistical measures (such as SD or SEM) should be defined in the Table heading.
Supplementary material should be uploaded to Publishing Manager and supplied as a separate file in both the following formats: .doc/.docx and .pdf. The authors should use the prefix “Supplementary” for each supplementary document submitted (e.g., Supplementary Table 1, Supplementary Figure 1). Files larger than 10 MB should be sent directly via email to email@example.com.
Authors must submit supplementary material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If authors wish to make changes to supplementary material at any stage of the process, they should make sure to provide an updated file.
Declarations and Final Statements
All manuscripts must contain the following required statements at the end of the paper:
- Conflict of Interest: All authors must disclose any personal and financial relationships with other people or organizations that could influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include consultancies, employment, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications and registrations, and grants or other funding. In this section, authors must disclose any potential conflict of interest. Example of authors’ declaration of personal interests: (i) [Name of individual] has served as a speaker, a consultant and an advisory board member for [names of organizations] and has received research funding from [names of organization]. (ii) [Name of individual] is an employee of [name of organization]. (iii) [Name of individual] owns stocks and shares in [name of organization]. (iv) [Name of individual] owns patent [patent identification and brief description]. If authors do not have conflicts of interest to disclose, they should include the following sentence in this section: “The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest to disclose”.
- Ethics Approval: An Ethics Committee should have approved human and animal studies but, in questionable matters, the Editors reserve the right to reject papers. For more details, visit the page “Journal Policies, COI and Licensing”.
- Informed Consent: Informed consent must be obtained for studies conducted on humans. A statement that informed consent was obtained from the study participants must also appear in the manuscript as follows: “All subjects provided written informed consent for inclusion before they participated in the study.”.
Examples of ethics and informed consent statements:
- Original article: “All subjects provided written informed consent for inclusion before they participated in the study. This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of 1975 (as revised in 2013), and the protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board (or Ethics Committee) of NAME OF THE INSTITUTE (project or protocol identification number XXX and date of approval).” OR “Ethical review and approval were waived for this study, due to REASON (please provide a detailed justification).”
- Case report: “Written informed consent was provided by the patient (and/or his/her parents) for permission to receive therapy and to publish this case report.”
- Acknowledgments: Brief acknowledgments of subjects who have made genuine contributions to the article and who endorse the data and conclusions should be included. In this section, authors must include written permission to use any copyrighted text and/or illustrations. In this section, authors are required to disclose any source of financial support to their work and/or all relevant consultancies within 12 months prior to submission (for more details, visit the page “Journal Policies, COI and Licensing”).
- Funding: In this section, authors must list any funding source and funding interests. For example: “This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxxx, yyyyy]”. Example of declaration of funding interests: (i) This study was funded [in part or in full] by [insert name of funding organization], grant number [insert grant or another identification number]. (ii) The [writing or preparation] of this paper was funded in part by [insert name of funding organization]. (iii) Initial data analyses were undertaken by [name of individuals if not listed as Authors] who are employees of [name company] and received funding from [insert name of funding organization]. (iv) Writing support was provided by [insert name of individual(s)] of [name company] and funded by [insert name of funding organization]. We remind that manuscripts published in European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences by authors funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) are eligible for indexing in MEDLINE/PubMed. If the article is accepted for publication and the work was supported by NIH, authors should insert the NIH grant number(s) in the Funding section of the manuscript. If the work was not supported by any source of funding, authors should use the following sentence “No funding is declared for this article”.
- Authors’ contributions: For transparency purposes, we request a short paragraph indicating the individual contribution of each author for articles with more than one author (author names should not be abbreviated). This information includes substantial contributions to the conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; drafting the article or making critical revisions related to the relevant intellectual content of the manuscript; supervision; validation and final approval of the version of the article to be published.
- ORCID ID: In this section, authors should include their ORCID ID, a unique and persistent author identifier to help distinguish their work from that of other researchers. ORCID ID should be supplied as follows: e.g., Camillo Ricordi: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8092-7153.
- Data availability statement: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences encourages authors to provide a statement about data availability in their articles containing original data. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the study results can be found, including, if applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analyzed or generated during the study. Data availability statements can also indicate if data are available on request from the authors and where no data are available, if appropriate. Data availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one of the following forms):
- The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available in the repository [NAME], [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS].
- The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLICLY AVAILABLE] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
- Data sharing does not apply to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study.
- The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
- All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article [and/or its supplementary material].
Nomenclature, Units and Abbreviations
All measurements should be expressed in SI units, except for hemoglobin (g/dL) and blood pressure (mmHg). Authors should specify if the original results were expressed in other units of measurement and should use appropriate conversion factors. Standard abbreviations without punctuation are used (Units, Symbols and Abbreviations (1988) published by the Royal Society of Medicine, and SI: The International System of Units (1982) from HMSO both provide useful guides).
Abbreviations, used sparingly, should follow the first full spelling, in round brackets. For example: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the excessive use of abbreviations in the text is discouraged. Authors must not include an abbreviated term in the manuscript without writing the term in full the first time it appears in the text. A list of abbreviations at the beginning of the article is allowed only if this list contains a minimum of 8 abbreviations.
A space must be inserted between numbers and units of measurement (e.g., INCORRECT: 65mg/dL; CORRECT: 65 mg/dL). The term “versus” should be written in italics and small letters as follows: “vs.”. The “p” of the p-value and the “t” of the t-test must be written in italics and lowercase Authors must use full stops instead of commas for decimal numbers (e.g., INCORRECT: 65,5; CORRECT: 65.5). In the main text, “et al.” must be written as “et al” without punctuation, followed by the reference number. The terms “in vivo” and “in vitro” must be written in italics and small letters.
Sequence variants should be described in the text and tables using both DNA and protein designations whenever appropriate. Sequence variant nomenclature must follow the current HGVS guidelines; see http://varnomen.hgvs.org/, where examples of acceptable nomenclature are provided. Gene names must be written in italics.
Drug Names and Pharmaceutical industries
In general, the use of generic names should be preferred when authors refer to drugs. Brand names may be inserted in round brackets at the author’s discretion. Drug names are spelled out according to the European Pharmacopoeia, but the American spelling should be used after the first use of a drug name. Authors should insert town, state, and nation names when citing pharmaceutical or device industries.
Authorship and Copyright
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following:
- Research conception and design
- Acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data
- Manuscript drafting and supervision
- Revision and final approval of the version of the manuscript to be submitted
All authors must approve all the submitted versions of the manuscript.
Changes to authorship
Authors should consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the first submission. Any deletion, addition or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list can be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the Editor-in-Chief.
To request this change, the Editor-in-Chief must receive a letter from the Corresponding Author (at firstname.lastname@example.org) specifying the reason for the change in the author list, along with a written confirmation letter from all authors that they agree with the removal, addition, or rearrangement. In the case of removal or addition of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being removed or added.
Copyright Transfer Agreement
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Authors will be required to sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement (click to download PDF) for all papers accepted for publication. The signature of the CTA is a condition of publication and papers will not be passed to the publisher for production unless a signed form has been received. After submission, authors cannot submit their manuscripts to other journals. After acceptance, the Publisher retains the rights of the paper. To assist Authors, an appropriate CTA form will be supplied by the editorial office. The original completed Copyright Transfer Agreement must be signed by the corresponding Author and sent by email to email@example.com or uploaded to Publishing Manager during the submission procedure. The Editors retain the usual right to modify the style and length of a contribution (major changes being agreed with the corresponding Author) and to decide the time of publication.
Third-party permission and Trademarks
When submitting an article, authors must confirm that the manuscript does not contain the use of material protected by copyright. Authors who wish to use copyrighted third-party content (defined as any material within the manuscript which is not the author’s original work) must obtain permission from the copyright holder (usually the original publisher). Third-party content may consist of figures, photos, illustrations, equipment and tools, and may be found in several places such as, but not limited to, websites, print, and online books and articles, theses, annual reports, conference material, etc. Once obtained, documents certifying the permission to use third-party content should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org for archiving purposes.
Submission Checklist for Authors
Authors can use this list to carry out a final check of their submission before they send it to the journal for review:
- Cover letter
- Copyright transfer agreement
- Title page, including Full title, Running head, Author names and affiliations, and Corresponding Author information
- Main text
- Figures (including figure legends)
- Tables (including table legends).